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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • Manuscript Title Page

    The title page should bear the title of the paper, the full names of all the authors and their affiliations, together with the name, full postal address, telephone numbers and e-mail address of the author to whom correspondence and offprint requests are to be sent. The title should be limited to a maximum of 30 words and should not contain abbreviations. The title should be a brief phrase describing the contents of the paper and should not make a statement or conclusion. The running title should consist of not more than 50 letters and spaces. It should be as brief as possible, convey the essential message of the paper.

    Note: The corresponding author should be marked with (*).
  • Abstract

    The abstract should not exceed 250 words and three to six keywords should be included to aid web searches after publication. It should be clearly written, well informative and briefly state the scope of the research. Abbreviations should be avoided as much as possible in the abstract.

    • Background: The purpose of the study.

    • Methods: How the study was performed and what statistical tests were used.

    • Results: The main findings.

    • Conclusion: A brief summary and potential implications.

  • Units, symbols and abbreviations

    Authors are requested to use the International System of Units for all measurements. Jargon and excessive abbreviations should be avoided. Some common abbreviations include m (meter), cm (centimeter), mm (millimeter), μm (micrometer), nm (nanometer), kg (kilogram), g (gram), mg (milligram), μg (microgram), ng (nanogram), L (liter), dl (deciliter), ml (milliliter), μl (microliter), nl (nanoliter), mol (mole), M (molar), mM (millimolar), μM (micromolar), °C (degrees Celsius), sec (second), min (minute), hr (hour), wk (week), mo (month), yr (year), cpm (counts per min), dpm (disintegrations per min), Ci (Curie), kDa (kiloDalton), G (gravitational acceleration), sc (subcutaneous), im (intramuscular), ip (intraperitoneal), iv (intravenous), po (oral), LD50 (median lethal dose), SD (standard deviation), SE (standard error), CV (coefficient of variation), and ANOVA (analysis of variance). Periods should not be used after abbreviations. When an uncommon abbreviation is used for the first time, the abbreviation should be placed in parentheses after the word or phrase for which it stands.

    Latin words used to identify biological structures or entities should be italicised; similarly phrases like et al., in situ, in vivo, versus, per se. However, commonly used abbreviations such as etc., viz and e.g. do not require italicisation.


    As a rule, numerals are not used to start sentences; words are preferred. In addition, words should be used for all numbers less than 10 and numerals for those greater than 10. In the situation where a sequence of numbers is given with some less and others more than 10, the use of numerals for all is advised. If a number is followed immediately by a unit of measurement use the numeral, e.g., 200 g. 30 cm.
  • Background/Introduction

    The Introduction should assume that the reader is knowledgeable in the field and should therefore be as brief as possible but can include a short historical review where desirable.
  • Materials & Method

    This section should contain sufficient detail, so that all experimental procedures can be reproduced, and include references. Methods, however, that have been published in detail elsewhere should not be described in detail. Authors should provide the name of the manufacturer and their location for any specifically named medical equipment and instruments, and all drugs should be identified by their pharmaceutical names, and by their trade name if relevant.
  • Results and Discussion

    This section should present clearly but precisely the experimental findings. This section may be divided by subheadings or may be combined. The results section should provide complete details of the findings from the experiment that are required to support the conclusions of the study. Only results essential for establishing the conclusions of the work should be included. Numerical data should be analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. State the results and draw attention in the text to important details shown in tables and figures.

    It is strongly advised that when preparing the discussion section you pay particular attention to principal findings, the validity of the observations, its relevance to other published work dealing with the same or closely related subjects, and the possible significance of the work.
  • Conclusions

    This should clearly summarize the main conclusions of the work and highlight its importance and implications.
  • Competing Interests

    Authors must declare whether or not there are any competing financial interests in relation to the work described. This information must be included at this stage and will be published as part of the paper. Conflict of interest should also be noted on the cover letter and as part of the submission process.
  • Acknowledgements

    If an acknowledgment is made, it should be included at the very end of the paper before the references. This section includes acknowledgment of people, grant details, funds, etc.

    Authors should obtain a permission to acknowledge all those mentioned in the Acknowledgements section.
  • Funding/Financial Disclosure

    The author should describe the sources of funding that have supported their work. Please include relevant grant numbers and the URL of any funder's Web site.
  • References

    Only papers directly related to the article should be cited. Exhaustive lists should be avoided. References to literature in the body of the manuscript are cited by author(s), followed by year. Authors are cited by their surnames only, e.g., Amidu (1999) or (Amidu, 1999) depending on sentence structure.

    • Amidu (1999) stated that archival collections present an impartial body of information.

    • Archival collections present an impartial body of information (Amidu, 1999).

    Distinguish between different papers by the same author (s) by postscript letters (Ojo, 1994a, 1994b, 1994c). In the body of the paper, where a paper has more than two authors, give only the name of the first author followed by et al. (see Osei, Okai and Tuah below). Unpublished papers must be referred to only in the text ( e.g. Osei, unpublished or S.A. Osei, personal communication) and should not be listed in the References section.

    All literature mentioned in the text should be listed in alphabetical and chronological (if same authors have more than one paper cited) order at the end of the paper under References. The year of publication (in brackets) must follow the names of authors who should be listed by surname first followed by initials. The use of et al in the references section is not allowed. Provide the full title of the paper in the original language or in an English translation. 
For Journals, use the proper journal abbreviations; if in doubt, quote the full name of the journal. The name of the journal, volume and pages should be typed in italics. Follow the title with the volume number in Arabic numerals and the first and last pages of the citation. Issue numbers are not necessary except for journals where continuous pagination is not used. Only proper nouns in titles of papers and books need to be capitalized; for example:

    Osei, S.A., Okai, D.B. and Tuah, A.K. (1999). Quality protein maize as the sole source of amino acids in the diets of starter pigs: a preliminary study. Journal of the University of Science and Technology 19: 1 – 4

    For books, the full citation should also include the title, edition number (if more than one), name of publishers, city of publication and country (if city cannot be easily identified by readers):

    Cryer, P.E., (1976). Diagnostic Endocrinology. Oxford University Press, New York.

    Where the book is edited, a reference to part of it must be given the normal literature citation but the title of the article is followed by the word In: and then the name of editor, book title, publishers and city of publication:

    Baker, D.H. (1977), Amino acid nutrition of the chick. In: Draper, H.H. (Editor) Advances in Nutrition Re- search. Plenum Press, New York.

    For references to conference and seminar papers, the citation should include the title of the paper, the theme of the conference/seminar, place where it was held and date (days and month, e.g., 19 – 21 May).
  • Figures

    Upon submission of an article, authors are supposed to include all figures in the manuscript in .doc, .docx, TIFF or JPEG format. All figures should be referred to in the manuscript in a proper sequence (Figure 1, Figure 2). The legends should be included in the main manuscript text file at the end of the document, rather than being a part of the figure file. For each figure there should be legends and the figure also be discussed in the text of the manuscript.

    Note: It is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain a permission from the copyright holder to reproduce figures or tables that have previously been published elsewhere.
  • Tables and captions

    Tables submitted for publication should be included at the very end of the manuscript file (.doc, .rtf, .tex). Each table should be numbered and referred to in sequence using Arabic numerals (i.e. Table 1, 2, 3 etc.). Each table should have a title (above the table) that summarizes the whole table; it should be no longer than 15 words if possible. Detailed legends may then follow, but they should be concise. Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
  • Production and Reprint

    After the final approval by the manuscript action editor and Editor-In-Chief, the manuscripts will be copyedited by our professional copyeditor. Once the article is done with typesetting, PDF proofs are generated and will be sent to author(s) for final approval.

    Authors will have a free access to the full text (HTML, PDF and XML) of the article. Authors can freely download the PDF file from which they can print unlimited number of copies of their articles.

    Note: Once the manuscript is accepted for publication, no major correction will be allowed except a few minor corrections.

    Corrections will be allowed only for the following: Errors in author names or affiliations, Figure & Table position in the final PDF, Errors in scientific facts, Typographical or minor clerical errors.
  • Article Processing Charges

    All manuscripts published by AMLS are fully open access. This allows the scientific community to view, download, distribute an article in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited, under the term of "Creative Commons Attribution License".

    AMLS does not charge users to print or view online versions of its journal contents as the traditional subscription-based publishing model. For this reason, article-processing charge (APC) is levied after the acceptance of the article. The article-processing charges is paid by the author, author's institutes or research funding bodies, which cover editorial service and production of an article (editing, publishing, maintaining and archiving). Article Processing Charges will be paid after acceptance of the article towards publication.
  • Article Withdrawal Policy

    From time to time, an author may wish to withdraw a manuscript after submitting it. Changing one’s mind is an author’s prerogative. And an author is free to withdraw an article at no charge – as long as it is withdrawn within 2 days of its initial submission.

Author Guidelines

Successful manuscripts should be hypothesis-driven. The hypothesis must be clearly stated at the outset and the manuscript should be geared toward verification of the hypothesis. Priority will be given to those laboratory studies that exemplify the highest level of scientific practice, based upon evidence-based medicine grading scheme. Novel clinical investigations will receive high priority as well. Given that the manuscript must be written in English, if English is not your mother tongue, it is recommended that you have your paper proofread to ensure its accuracy and quality of the language.

Manuscripts should be submitted by one of the listed authors through the online Editorial Managing System (EMS). While submitting the manuscript files through EMS, make sure your files are in Word  (.doc, .docx) format.

If you have any difficulties logging into our Editorial Managing System for the submission of manuscript, you can send the manuscript directly to our E-mail address

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