Detection of IgM and IgG Dengue antibodies in febrile patients suspected of malaria attending health center in Jos, Nigeria
Background: Despite the public health importance of dengue infections, it is less investigated by clinicians and rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses in Nigeria. The objective was to detect the presence of Dengue IgG/IgM antibodies and Plasmodium species in the blood of febrile patients.
Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted among ninety-four (94) consenting febrile patients suspected of malaria in Jos. Duo detection of dengue antibodies (IgG/IgM) were determined by ELISA technique. Total DNA was extracted from patient serum and quantified to determine concentration and quality of the extraction process. Malaria was detected by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.
Results: Dengue antibodies were detected in 55.3% (52/94) of the febrile patients. The mean age was 29.9±1.2. Highest dengue prevalence of 75% (39/52), 50% (26/52) and 59.6% (31/52) were recorded among females, students and non-users of mosquito nets, respectively. In all. 11.7% (11/94) of the samples
tested positive for malaria. Age group 11-20 years recorded the highest prevalence of malaria, 63.6% (7/11). Dengue and Malaria co-infection was documented in 5.3% (5/94). There was a significant difference in the prevalence of dengue and malaria among febrile subjects.
Conclusion: No association of dengue infection with gender and use of Insecticide Treated Nets was found. The lower malaria prevalence compared to dengue suggests that febrile illness in this population is shown to be associated more with dengue infection. We recommend a continuous surveillance of dengue infection in this population and consideration of dengue in the differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses.
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