Detection of IgM and IgG Dengue antibodies in febrile patients suspected of malaria attending health center in Jos, Nigeria

  • Nantip F. Miri Institute of Human Virology Nigeria, Abuja/Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Science University of Jos, Nigeria
  • John D. Mawak Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria
  • Chukwu O. Chukwu Department of Environmental Health Technology, Federal College of Veterinary and Medical Laboratory Technology, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom-Jos, Nigeria.
  • Nyam J. Chuwang Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria
  • Shedrach Y. Acheng Genomics and Postgraduate Research Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and gynaecology, Faculty of Medical Science, College of Health Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria.
  • Teme Ezekiel Laboratory Technician, Serology Unit, Plateau State Virology Research Center, Plateau Specialist Hospital, Nigeria
Keywords: dengue IgG/IgM antibodies, febrile illnesses, malaria, insecticide


Background: Despite the public health importance of dengue infections, it is less investigated by clinicians and rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses in Nigeria. The objective was to detect the presence of Dengue IgG/IgM antibodies and Plasmodium species in the blood of febrile patients.
Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted among ninety-four (94) consenting febrile patients suspected of malaria in Jos. Duo detection of dengue antibodies (IgG/IgM) were determined by ELISA technique. Total DNA was extracted from patient serum and quantified to determine concentration and quality of the extraction process. Malaria was detected by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.
Results: Dengue antibodies were detected in 55.3% (52/94) of the febrile patients. The mean age was 29.9±1.2. Highest dengue prevalence of 75% (39/52), 50% (26/52) and 59.6% (31/52) were recorded among females, students and non-users of mosquito nets, respectively. In all. 11.7% (11/94) of the samples
tested positive for malaria. Age group 11-20 years recorded the highest prevalence of malaria, 63.6% (7/11). Dengue and Malaria co-infection was documented in 5.3% (5/94). There was a significant difference in the prevalence of dengue and malaria among febrile subjects.
Conclusion: No association of dengue infection with gender and use of Insecticide Treated Nets was found. The lower malaria prevalence compared to dengue suggests that febrile illness in this population is shown to be associated more with dengue infection. We recommend a continuous surveillance of dengue infection in this population and consideration of dengue in the differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses.
Annals of Medical Laboratory Science (2021) 1(1), 27 - 35


Adefioye O., Adeyeba O., Hassan W. and Oyeniran O. (2007) Prevalence of malaria parasite
infection among pregnant women in O s o g b o , S o u t h w e s t , N i g e r i a . American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research 2(1), 43-45.

Adeleke M., Muhibi M.A., Ajayi E., Idowu O.A.,
Famodimu M., Olaniyan S. and Hassan A. (2016) Dengue virus specific Immunoglobulin G antibodies among patients with febrile conditions in Oshogbo, South-western Nigeria. Trop Biomed 33(1), 1-7.

Adesina O.A. and Adeniji J.A. (2016) Incidence of dengue virus infections in febrile episodes in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. African Journal of Infectious Diseases 10(1), 21-24.

Akinboro R., Ojurongbe O., Akindele A., Adefioye O., Bolaji O., Olaniran O. and Adeyeba O. (2010) Plasmodium falciparium parasitemia in pregnancy in relation to maternal anaemia. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology 11(3).

Amexo M., Tolhurst R., Barnish G. and Bates I. (2004) Malaria misdiagnosis: effects on the poor and vulnerable. The Lancet 364(9448), 1896-1898.

Ayolabi C.I., Olusola B.A., Ibemgbo S.A. and Okonkwo G.O. (2019) Detection of Dengue viruses among febrile patients in Lagos, Nigeria and phylogenetics of circulating Dengue serotypes in Africa. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 75103947.

Baba M., Saron M.-F., Vorndam A., Adeniji J.,
Diop O. and Olaleye D. (2009) Dengue virus infections in patients suspected of malaria/typhoid in Nigeria. J Am Sci 5(5), 129-134.

Bello O., Aminu M. and Jatau E. (2016) Seroprevalence of IgM antibodies to dengue fever virus among patients presenting with symptoms of fever in some hospitals in Kaduna State Nigeria. infection 3(4).

Bertakis K.D., Azari R., Helms L.J., Callahan E.J. and Robbins J.A. (2000) Gender differences in the utilization of health care services. Journal of family practice 49(2), 147-147.

Berzosa P., de Lucio A., Romay-Barja M., Herrador Z., González V., García L., FernándezMartínez A., Santana-Morales M., Ncogo P. and Valladares B. (2018) Comparison of three diagnostic methods (microscopy, RDT, and PCR) for the detection of malaria parasites in representative samples from Equatorial Guinea. Malaria journal 17(1), 1-12.

Bhatt S., Gething P.W., Brady O.J., Messina J.P., Farlow A.W., Moyes C.L., Drake J.M., Brownstein J.S., Hoen A.G. and Sankoh O. (2013) The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature 496(7446), 504-507.

CDC (2014) Centers for Disease Control Prevention: National center for emerging and zoonotic infectious diseases. Internet address: http://www. cdc. gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/campylobacter/technical. html. Accessed Jan.

Charrel R.N., Brouqui P., Foucault C. and De Lamballerie X. (2005) Concurrent dengue and malaria. Emerging infectious diseases 11(7), 1153.

Dawurung J., Baba M., Stephen G., Jonas S., Bukbuk
D. and Dawurung C. (2010) Serological evidence of acute Dengue virus infection among febrile patients attending Plateau State Specialist hospital Jos, Nigeria.

Deresinski S. (2006) Concurrent Plasmodium vivax malaria and dengue.

Epelboin L., Hanf M., Dussart P., Ouar-Epelboin S., Djossou F., Nacher M. and Carme B. (2012) Is dengue and malaria co-infection more severe than single infections? A retrospective matched-pair study in French Guiana. Malaria journal 11(1), 1-8.

Font F., Alonso Gonzalez M., Nathan R., Kimario J., Lwilla F., Ascaso C., Tanner M., Menendez C. and Alonso P. (2001) Diagnostic accuracy and case management of clinical malaria in the primary health services of a rural area in south‐eastern Tanzania. Tropical Medicine & International Health 6(6), 423-428.

Halstead S.á., Nimmannitya S. and Cohen S. (1970) Observations related to pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever. IV. Relation of disease severity to antibody response and virus recovered. The Yale journal of biology and medicine 42(5), 311.

Han T.Z., Han K.T., Aye K.H., Hlaing T., Thant
K.Z. and Vythilingam I. (2017) Comparison of microscopy and PCR for the detection of human Plasmodium species and Plasmodium knowlesi in southern Myanmar. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 7(8), 680-685.

Idris A., Baba M., Thairu Y. and Bamidele O. (2013) Sero-prevalence of dengue type-3 Virus among patients with febrile illnesses attending a tertiary hospital in Maiduguri, Nigeria. International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 5(12), 560-563.

Kingsley U.B., Tabitha V.S., Lohya N. and Joseph A.-O.A. Saudi Journal of Pathology and Microbiology (SJPM) ISSN 2518-3362 (Print).

Kolawole O.M., Seriki A.A., Irekeola A.A., Bello K.E. and Adeyemi O.O. (2017) Dengue virus and malaria concurrent infection among febrile subjects within Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of medical virology 89(8), 1347-1353.

Marchand R.P., Culleton R., Maeno Y., Quang N.T. and Nakazawa S. (2011) Co-infections of Plasmodium knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax among Humans and Anopheles dirus Mosquitoes, Southern Vietnam. Emerging infectious diseases 17(7), 1232.

Mfuh K.O., Achonduh-Atijegbe O.A., Bekindaka O.N., Esemu L.F., Mbakop C.D., Gandhi K., Leke R.G., Taylor D.W. and Nerurkar V.R. (2019) A comparison of thick-film microscopy, rapid diagnostic test and polymerase chain reaction for accurate diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Malaria journal 18(1), 1-8.

Moses A., Atting I. and Inyang O. (2016) Evidence of overlapping infections of dengue, malaria and typhoid in febrile patients attending a tertiary health facility in Uyo, South-South Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research1-9.

Mukhopadhyay S., Kuhn R.J. and Rossmann M.G. (2005) A structural perspective of the flavivirus life cycle. Nature Reviews Microbiology 3 (1), 13-22.

Murray N.E.A., Quam M.B. and Wilder-Smith A. (2013) Epidemiology of dengue: past, present and future prospects. Clinical epidemiology 5299.

Mustafa M., Rasotgi V., Jain S. and Gupta V. (2015) Discovery of fifth serotype of dengue virus (DENV-5): A new public health dilemma in dengue control. Medical journal armed forces India 71(1), 67-70.

Nankabirwa J., Zurovac D., Njogu J.N., Rwakimari J.B., Counihan H., Snow R.W. and Tibenderana J.K. (2009) Malaria misdiagnosis in Uganda–implications for policy change. Malaria journal 8(1), 1-9.

Ndyomugyenyi R., Magnussen P. and Clarke S. (2007) Diagnosis and treatment of malaria in peripheral health facilities in Uganda: findings from an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda. Malaria journal 6(1), 1-8.

Onoja A., Adeniji J. and Olaleye O. (2016) High rate of unrecognized dengue virus infection in parts of the rainforest region of Nigeria. Acta tropica 16039-43.

Onyedibe K. (2018) A cross sectional study of dengue virus infection in febrile patients presumptively diagnosed of malaria in Maiduguri and Jos plateau, Nigeria. Malawi Medical Journal 30(4), 276-282.

Pang J., Thein T.-L., Lye D.C. and Leo Y.-S. (2015) Differential clinical outcome of dengue infection among patients with and without HIV infection: a matched case–control study. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 92(6), 1156-1162.

Reich N.G., Shrestha S., King A.A., Rohani P., Lessler J., Kalayanarooj S., Yoon I.-K., Gibbons
R.V., Burke D.S. and Cummings D.A. (2013) Interactions between serotypes of dengue highlight epidemiological impact of cross-immunity. Journal of The Royal Society Interface 10(86), 20130414.

Sow A., Loucoubar C., Diallo D., Faye O., Ndiaye Y., Senghor C.S., Dia A.T., Faye O., Weaver S.C. and Diallo M. (2016) Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal. Malaria journal 15(1), 1-7.

Tenenbaum A., Nordeman L., Sunnerhagen K.S.
and Gunnarsson R. (2017) Gender
differences in care-seeking behavior and
healthcare consumption immediately after
whiplash trauma. PloS one 12(4), e0176328.

Thangaratham P., Jeevan M., Rajendran R., Samuel P.P. and Tyagi B. (2006) Dual infection by dengue virus and Plasmodium vivax in Alappuzha District, Kerala, India. Japanese journal of infectious diseases 59(3), 211.

Thiam S., Thior M., Faye B., Ndiop M., Diouf
M.L., Diouf M.B., Diallo I., Fall F.B.,
Ndiaye J.L. and Albertini A. (2011) Major reduction in anti-malarial drug consumption in Senegal after nation-wide introduction of malaria rapid diagnostic tests. PloS one 6(4), e18419.

Thompson A.E., Anisimowicz Y., Miedema B.,
Hogg W., Wodchis W.P. and
Aubrey-Bassler K. (2016) The influence of gender and other patient characteristics on health care-seeking behaviour: a QUALICOPC study. BMC family practice 17 (1), 1-7.

Ward D.I. (2006) A case of fatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria complicated by acute dengue fever in East Timor. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 75(1), 82-185.

Weaver S.C. and Reisen W.K. (2010) Present and future arboviral threats. Antiviral research 85 (2), 328-345.

WHO (2017) Global vector control response 2017-2030, World Health Organization UNICEF.

Yip V.C.-H., Sanjay S. and Koh Y.T. (2012) Ophthalmic complications of dengue fever: a systematic review. Ophthalmology and therapy 1 (1), 1-19.

Yudhishdran J., Liyanage I.K., Navinan M.R., Herath S., Withanage D., Jeyalakshmy S. and Kulatunga A. (2019) The eye in dengue fever, a rarely appreciated aspect of dengue expanded syndrome: a case report. Journal of medical case reports 13(1), 1-8.
How to Cite
Miri, N. F., Mawak, J. D., Chukwu, C. O., Chuwang, N. J., Acheng, S. Y., & Ezekiel, T. (2021). Detection of IgM and IgG Dengue antibodies in febrile patients suspected of malaria attending health center in Jos, Nigeria. Annals of Medical Laboratory Science, 1(1), 27-35.