Prevalence of Hepatitis B, C and HIV infections among haemodialysis patients at the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Ghana; A retrospective study
Background: End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis could be at a higher risk of acquiring viral infections such as hepatitis B, C (HBV, HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The study investigated the prevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV and identified the determinants of these viral infections among end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis at the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital (CCTH).
Methods: This retrospective hospital-based record review was conducted at the CCTH among 89 patients who underwent hemodialysis in at the renal unit of the hospital. The viral infection histories of all the recruited patients were collected as well as clinical and demographic data to identify the determinants of viral infections.
Results: Of the 89 patients comprising of 59 (66.3%) males and 30 (33.7%) females, 11(12.4%) were found to be positive for HbsAg, and 6 (6.7%) were found to be positive for HCV infection. Five (5.6%) patients were positive for HIV and 5 (5.6%) participants had co-infection of HBV and HCV. No co-infection of the three viral infections was reported among the participants. Of the various parameters assessed, only average monthly dialysis sessions varied significantly by gender. Univariate logistics regression analysis indicated that HCV [OR=64.17; 95% CI (6.42-641.41) p<0.001] and HBV [OR=35.45; 95% CI (3.78-332.35) p=0.002] infection was a significant independent risk factor of acquiring HBV and HCV infection respectively. The commonest causes of ESRD among participants were hypertension (54.5%) and chronic glomerulonephritis (27.3%).
Conclusion: Prevalence rates of the three viral infections studied were high. The likelihood of getting infected with one viral agent as a result of an already existing viral agent was significant. There is therefore an urgent need for the intensification of health education on the occurrence so as to help curb a possible escalation of the viral infection in the general population.
Annals of Medical Laboratory Science (2022) 2(1), 42 - 51
Alashek, W. A., McIntyre, C. W., & Taal, M. W. (2012). Hepatitis B and C infection in haemodialysis patients in Libya: prevalence, incidence and risk factors. BMC Infectious Diseases, 12, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-12-265
Barril, G., Trullás, J.-C., González-Parra, E., Moreno, A., Bergada, E., Jofre, R., … Miró, J. M. (2004). [Prevalence of HIV-1-infection in dialysis units in Spain and potential candidates for renal transplantation: results of a Spanish survey]. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, 23(6), 335–339. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15970165
Bhaumik, P., & Debnath, K. (2012). Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Hemodialysis Patients of Tripura , India. Jp_Journals, 10–13. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1023
Duong, C. M., Olszyna, D. P., & McLaws, M.-L. (2015). Hepatitis B and C virus infections among patients with end stage renal disease in a low-resourced hemodialysis center in Vietnam: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 192. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1532-9
Ghana AIDS commission (2017), National and Sub-National HIV and AIDS Estimates and Projection. http://www.ghanaids.gov.gh/gac1/pubs/20172022_national_and_sub%20natio al_Estimates_Report.pdf.
Haroun, M. K., Jaar, B. G., Hoffman, S. C., Comstock, G. W., Klag, M. J., & Coresh, J. (2010). Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease : A Prospective Study of 23 , 534 Men and Women in Washington County, M a r y l a n d , 2 9 3 4 / 2 9 4 1 . h t t p s : / /doi.org/10.1097/01.ASN.0000095249.99803.85
Ibrahim, N. M. R., Sidiq, Z., Saleem, M., & Hussein, N. R. (2018). The Prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HBV Among Hemodialysis Patients Attending Duhok Hemodialysis Center, 5(1), 12–15. https://doi.org/10.5812/iji.63246.Research
Kim, A. J., Lim, H. J., Ro, H., Jung, J. Y., Lee, H. H., Chung, W., & Chang, J. H. (2016). Liver cirrhosis leads to poorer survival in patients with end-stage renal disease. The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine, 31(4), 730–738. https://doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2014.328
Liu, Z., & Hou, J. (2006). Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Dual Infection. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 3(2),57–62. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1415845/
Malhotra, R., Soin, D., Grover, P., Galhotra, S., Khutan, H., & Kaur, N. (2016). Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection in hemodialysis patients: A retrospective study from a tertiary care hospital of North India. Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine, 7(1), 72. https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-9668.175076
Meremo, A. J., Ngilangwa, D. P., Mwashambwa, M. Y., Masalu, M. B., Kapinga, J., Tagalile, R., & Sabi, I. (2017). Challenges and outcomes of haemodialysis among patients presenting with kidney diseases in Dodoma, Tanzania. BMC Nephrology , 1 8(1), 4–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12882-017-0634-2
Reddy, G., Dakshinamurthy, K., Neelaprasad, P., Gangadhar, T., & Lakshmi, V. (2005). Prevalence of HBV and HCV dual infection in patients on haemodialysis. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 23(1), 41. https://doi.org/10.4103/0255-0857.13872
Sagnelli, E., Coppola, N., Messina, V., Di Caprio, D., Marrocco, C., Marotta, A., … Filippini, P. (2002). HBV superinfection in hepatitis C virus chronic carriers, viral interaction, and clinical course. Hepatology, 36(5), 1285–1291. Saha D, Agarwal SK. Hepatitis and HIV infection during haemodialysis. Journal of the Indian Medical Association. 2001 Apr;99(4):194-9.
Tannor, E. K., Awuku, Y. A., Boima, V., & Antwi, S. (2018). The geographical distribution of dialysis services in Ghana, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41100-018-0143-1
Mpondo, B. C., Gunda, D. W., & Kilonzo, S. B. (2017). HIV epidemic in Tanzania: the possible role of the key populations. AIDS research and treatment, 2017.
Yakaryilmaz F, Alp Gurbuz O, Guliter S, Mert A, Songur Y, Karakan T, Keles H. Prevalence of occult hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections in Turkish hemodialysis patients. Renal failure. 2006 Jan 1;28(8):729-35.
WHO, Regional office for Eastern Mediterranean, Iraq;HIV/AIDS http://www.emro.who.int/irq/programmes/hiv-aids.html
Copyright (c) 2022 Annals of Medical Laboratory Science
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
As AMLS is an international Open Access magazine, all the articles published under this journal will be accessible to all internet users throughout the world without any barrier of access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The copyright of a submitted article is only transferred to the publishers if and when the article is accepted for publication.