Prevalence of Hepatitis B, C and HIV infections among haemodialysis patients at the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Ghana; A retrospective study

  • Richard K.D Ephraim Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast
  • Richard T. Addo Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast
  • Yaw A. Awuku Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, School of Medical Sciences, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast
  • Hope Agbodjakey Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast
  • Prince Adoba Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast
  • Perditer Okyere Renal Unit /Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine and Dentistry, College of Health and Allied Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
  • Sarah V. Bachelle Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast
  • Albert Abaka-Yawson Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast
  • Justice Afrifa Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast
Keywords: End stage renal disease, viral infections, hemodialysis, co-infection

Abstract

Background: End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis could be at a higher risk of acquiring viral infections such as hepatitis B, C (HBV, HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The study investigated the prevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV and identified the determinants of these viral infections among end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis at the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital (CCTH).
Methods: This retrospective hospital-based record review was conducted at the CCTH among 89 patients who underwent hemodialysis in at the renal unit of the hospital. The viral infection histories of all the recruited patients were collected as well as clinical and demographic data to identify the determinants of viral infections.
Results: Of the 89 patients comprising of 59 (66.3%) males and 30 (33.7%) females, 11(12.4%) were found to be positive for HbsAg, and 6 (6.7%) were found to be positive for HCV infection. Five (5.6%) patients were positive for HIV and 5 (5.6%) participants had co-infection of HBV and HCV. No co-infection of the three viral infections was reported among the participants. Of the various parameters assessed, only average monthly dialysis sessions varied significantly by gender. Univariate logistics regression analysis indicated that HCV [OR=64.17; 95% CI (6.42-641.41) p<0.001] and HBV [OR=35.45; 95% CI (3.78-332.35) p=0.002] infection was a significant independent risk factor of acquiring HBV and HCV infection respectively. The commonest causes of ESRD among participants were hypertension (54.5%) and chronic glomerulonephritis (27.3%).
Conclusion: Prevalence rates of the three viral infections studied were high. The likelihood of getting infected with one viral agent as a result of an already existing viral agent was significant. There is therefore an urgent need for the intensification of health education on the occurrence so as to help curb a possible escalation of the viral infection in the general population.

Annals of Medical Laboratory Science (2022) 2(1), 42 - 51

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WHO, Regional office for Eastern Mediterranean, Iraq;HIV/AIDS http://www.emro.who.int/irq/programmes/hiv-aids.html
Published
2022-04-16
How to Cite
Ephraim, R. K., Addo, R. T., Awuku, Y. A., Agbodjakey, H., Adoba, P., Okyere, P., Bachelle, S. V., Abaka-Yawson, A., & Afrifa, J. (2022). Prevalence of Hepatitis B, C and HIV infections among haemodialysis patients at the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Ghana; A retrospective study. Annals of Medical Laboratory Science, 2(1), 42-51. https://doi.org/10.51374/annalsmls.2022.2.1.0057
Section
Articles