Malaria epidemics detection and associated climatic factors in the Hauts Bassins Health Region of Burkina Faso
Background: Malaria is endemic in the Hauts Bassins Health Region, making it necessary to detect epidemics. Though malaria is a climatic sensitive disease, the association between malaria occurrence and climate is not well known in the Hauts Bassins Health Region. The study sought to detect malaria epidemics and assess the correlation of malaria cases with climate.
Methods: A secondary analysis of ecological data from the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the General Directorate of Meteorology of Burkina Faso was conducted. Mean, quartiles and cumulative sum methods were performed to set epidemic thresholds. Correlation between malaria and climatic factors in the health region was assessed using Spearman's test. A
Mann-Whitney test determined the association of malaria transmission seasons with climatic variables, at 5%. Kruskal-Wallis test evaluated the relationship between malaria and the years of the occurrence, at a 5% significance level.
Results: From 2013 to 2016, 2,521,789 malaria cases were reported in the region, with a mean incidence of 269 cases per 10,000 people. The annual incidence increased from 2,048 cases per 10,000 people in 2013 to 5,277 cases per 10,000 people in 2016. Regardless of the method used, cases were high in 2016, with few exceptions. There was a weak negative correlation between
malaria and minimum (r=-0,292; p-value=0.044) and maximum (r=-0,391; p-value=0.006) temperatures. The relationship between relative humidity and malaria was positive and weak (r=0,304; p-value=0.036). Lowest temperatures and highest relative humidity simultaneously drove malaria within-year variability during the high transmission season.
Conclusion: Malaria incidence increased unexpectedly in 2016. Malaria endemicity hides a within-year and year-to-year variability, partially driven by the temperature, relative humidity and rainfall.
Annals of Medical Laboratory Science (2022) 2(2), 12 - 22
A.J. McMichael, D. H. C.-L., C. F. Corvalán, K. L. Ebi, A. K. Githeko, J. D. Scheraga, A. Woodward (Ed.). (2003). Climate change and human health: Risks and responses. World Health Organization.
Cullen, J. R., Chitprarop, U., Doberstyn, E. B., & Sombatwattanangkul, K. (1984). An epidemiological early warning system for malaria control in northern Thailand. 62(1), 107–114.
Hamidou, R. L., Moustapha, L. M., Maiga, M. A., Djibo, Y. H., Mouhaimouni, M., Boubacar, A., & Ibrahim, M. L. (2018). Influence des facteurs climatiques sur la morbidité palustre à Tillabéry au Niger. 9.
Hay, S. I., Simba, M., Busolo, M., Noor, A. M., Guyatt, H. L., Ochola, S. A., & Snow, R. W. (2002). Defining and Detecting Malaria Epidemics in the Highlands of Western Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(6), 555–562. https://doi.org/10.3201/ eid0806.010310
Hussien, H. H. (2019). Malaria's association with climatic variables and an epidemic early warning system using historical data from Gezira State, Sudan. Heliyon, 5(3), e01375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01375
Ministère de la santé. (2014). Annuaire statistique 2013 (p. 350). Ministère de la santé.
Ministère de la santé. (2017). Annuaire statistique 2016. DGESS.
Ministère de la santé. (2019). Annuaire statistique 2018 (p. 502). Ministère de la santé.
Mohammadkhani, M., Khanjani, N., Bakhtiari, B., Tabatabai, S. M., & Sheikhzadeh, K. (2019). The Relation Between Climatic Factors and Malaria Incidence in Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran. SAGE Open, 9(3), 215824401986420. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019864205
Najera, J. A., Koumetsov, R. L., & Delacollette, C. (1998). Malaria epidemics detection and control forecasting and prevention (World Health Organization). Nkurunziza, H., Gebhardt, A., & Pilz, J. (2010). Bayesian modelling of the effect of climate on malaria in Burundi. 8.
Ouedraogo, B., Inoue, Y., Kambiré, A., Sallah, K., Dieng, S., Tine, R., Rouamba, T., Herbreteau, V., Sawadogo, Y., Ouedraogo, L. S. L. W., Yaka, P., Ouedraogo, E. K., Dufour, J.-C., & Gaudart, J. (2018). Spatio-temporal dynamic of malaria in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, 2011–2015. Malar J., 17(1), 138. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2280-y
Ouédraogo, M., Rouamba, T., Samadoulougou, S., & Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, F. (2020).
Effect of Free Healthcare Policy for Children under Five Years Old on the Incidence of Reported Malaria Cases in Burkina Faso by Bayesian Modelling: "Not only the Ears but also the Head of the Hippopotamus." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(2), 417. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020417
Pages, F., Orlandipradines, E., & Corbel, V. (2007). Vecteurs du paludisme: Biologie, diversité, contrôle et protection individuelle. Med Mal Infect., 37(3), 153–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medmal.2006.10.009
Rouamba, T., Nakanabo-Diallo, S., Derra, K., Rouamba, E., Kazienga, A., Inoue, Y., Ouédraogo, E. K., Waongo, M., Dieng, S., Guindo, A., Ouédraogo, B., Sallah, K. L., Barro, S., Yaka, P., Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, F., Tinto, H., & Gaudart, J. (2019). Socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with malaria hotspots in the Nanoro demographic surveillance area, Burkina Faso. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 249. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6565-z
Teklehaimanot, H. D., Schwartz, J., Teklehaimanot, A., & Lipsitch, M. (2004). Alert Threshold Algorithms and Malaria Epidemic Detection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(7), 1220–1226. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1007.030722
WHO & CDC. (2010). Technical Guidelines for Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response in the African Region (Diane Speight (B.A.), CDC, Atlanta).
World Health Organization. (2004). Field guide for malaria epidemic assessment and reporting (World Health Organization 2004).
World Health Organization. (2019). World malaria report 2019 (World Health Organization2019). World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/1262394/retrieve
Copyright (c) 2022 Annals of Medical Laboratory Science
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
As AMLS is an international Open Access magazine, all the articles published under this journal will be accessible to all internet users throughout the world without any barrier of access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The copyright of a submitted article is only transferred to the publishers if and when the article is accepted for publication.