Clinical significance of body temperature in SARS-COV-2 positivity: A prospective study among travelers
Background: Globally, SARS-CoV-2 infections continue to rise with dire consequences on the social and economic activities in affected countries. This prospective cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the evidence of body temperature and the presence of COVID-19 diseases among travelers.
Methods: The study recruited 314 travelers who visited the Trust Specialist Hospital in Accra hospital. Body temperature readings, demographic information, and the RT-PCR test results of nasopharyngeal swabs were collected routinely from the travelers between March and August 2021. Descriptive statistics and measures of association were performed for the associations between the body temperature readings as an outcome variable verses age, sex, ORF1AB
gene, and NGene CT values. An alpha value (p<0.05) was considered statistically significant.
Results: There was an even distribution of body temperature readings among the SARS-CoV-2 infected patients however, 90.4% of them were asymptomatic with low/normal body temperature. The ORF1AB mean CT values indicated high infectivity at low/normal and high body temperatures of the patients (26.9 and 25.9 cycles respectively). About 70.1% recorded ORF1AB CT values less than 30 cycles.
Conclusion: The study demonstrates that asymptomatic SAR-CoV-2 infected individuals are equally infectious as those who present with symptoms, hence, temperature checks alone may be misleading. This study was restricted to the use of a rise in body temperature to define asymptomatic cases therefore does not seek to generalize.
Annals of Medical Laboratory Science (2022) 2(2), 45 - 54
Brooks S.K., Webster R.K., Smith L.E., Woodland L., Wessely S., Greenberg N. and Rubin G.J. (2020) The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The lancet 395 (10227), 912-920. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8
Buitrago-Garcia D., Egli-Gany D., Counotte M.J., Hossmann S., Imeri H., Ipekci A.M., Salanti G. and Low N. (2020) Occurrence and transmission potential of asymptomatic and presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections: A living systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS medicine 17(9), e1003346. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003346
Bwire G.M. and Paulo L.S. (2020) Coronavirus disease-2019: is fever an adequate screening for the returning travelers? Tropical medicine and health 48(1), 1-3.
Byambasuren O., Cardona M., Bell K., Clark J., McLaws M.-L. and Glasziou P. (2020) Estimating the extent of asymptomatic COVID-19 and its potential for community transmission: systematic review and meta-analysis. Official Journal of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada 5(4), 223-234.
CDC (2020). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Migration and border health. considerations for health screening for COVID-19 at points of entry. Available at: https://www.cdc. gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/global-covid-19/ migration-borderhealth.html
Cochran W.G. (1954) The combination of estimates from different experiments. Biometrics 10(1), 101-129.
Del Rio C. and Malani P.N. (2020) 2019 novel coronavirus—important information for clinicians. Jama 323(11), 1039-1040.
GHS (2021). Ghana’s COVID-19 situation dashboard. Accessed on 10th August, 2021 from. http://ghs.gov.gh/covid19/dashboardm.php
Gostic K., Gomez A.C., Mummah R.O., Kucharski A.J. and Lloyd-Smith J.O. (2020) Estimated effectiveness of symptom and risk screening to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Elife 9e55570.
Guan W.-j., Ni Z.-y., Hu Y., Liang W.-h., Ou C.-q., He J.-x., Liu L., Shan H., Lei C.-l. and Hui D.S. (2020) Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. New England Journal of Medicine 382(18), 1708- 1720.
He F., Deng Y. and Li W. (2020) Coronavirus disease 2019: What we know? [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 14]. J Med Virol 10. doi:10.1002/jmv.26326 pmid:32691881
Hiroi S., Kubota‐Koketsu R., Sasaki T., Morikawa S., Motomura K., Nakayama E.E., Okuno Y. and Shioda T. (2021) Infectivity assay for detection of SARS‐CoV‐2 in samples from patients with COVID‐19. Journal of Medical Virology 93(10), 5917-5923. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27145
Klompas M., Morris C.A., Sinclair J., Pearson M. and Shenoy E.S. (2020) Universal masking in hospitals in the Covid-19 era. New England Journal of Medicine 382(21), e63. ttps://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2006372
La Scola B., Le Bideau M., Andreani J., Hoang V.T., Grimaldier C., Colson P., Gautret P. and Raoult D. (2020) Viral RNA load as determined by cell culture as a management tool for discharge of SARS-CoV-2 patients from infectious disease wards. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 39(6), 1059-1061.
Li Q., Guan X., Wu P., Wang X., Zhou L., Tong Y., Ren R., Leung K.S., Lau E.H. and Wong J.Y. (2020) Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine.
MOH (2020a). President Akufo-Addo Addresses Nation on Measures Taken By Gov’t To Combat The Coronavirus Pandemic. Assessed on 11th August, 2021. https://www.moh.gov.gh/president-akufo- addo-addresses-nation-on-measures-taken-bygovt-to-combat-the-coronavirus-pandemic/
myjoyonline (2020). Parts of Ghana to be on lockdown from Monday. Assessed on 10th August, 2021 from https://www.myjoyonline.com/parts-of-ghana-tobe-on-lockdown-from-monday/
Odikro M.A., Kenu E., Malm K.L., Asiedu-Bekoe F., Noora C.L., Frimpong J., Calys-Tagoe B. and Koram K.A. (2020) Epidemiology of COVID-19 outbreak in Ghana, 2020. Ghana Medical Journal 54(4s), 5-15.
Oran D.P. and Topol E.J. (2020) Prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection: a narrative review. Annals of internal medicine 173(5), 362-367.https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/abs/10.7326/M20-3012
Park Y., Huh I.S., Lee J., Kang C.R., Cho S.-i., Ham H.J., Kim H.S., Kim J.-i., Na B.J. and Lee J.Y. (2020) Application of testing-tracingtreatment strategy in response to the COVID-19 outbreak in Seoul, Korea. Journal of Korean Medical Science 35(45).doi:10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e396. PMID: 33230987; PMCID: PMC7683243
Platten M., Hoffmann D., Grosser R., Wisplinghoff F., Wisplinghoff H., Wiesmüller G., Schildgen O. and Schildgen V. (2021) SARS-CoV-2, CT-values, and infectivity conclusions to be drawn from side observations, pp. 1459: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081459
Pondaven-Letourmy S., Alvin F., Boumghit Y. and Simon F. (2020) How to perform a
nasopharyngeal swab in adults and children in the COVID-19 era. European annals of otorhinolaryngology, head and neck diseases 137(4), 325-327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anorl.2020.06.001
Sethuraman N., Jeremiah S.S. and Ryo A. (2020) Interpreting diagnostic tests for SARS-CoV- 2. Jama 323(22), 2249-2251.
Singanayagam A., Patel M., Charlett A., Bernal J.L., Saliba V., Ellis J., Ladhani S., Zambon M. and Gopal R. (2020) Duration of infectiousness and correlation with RT-PCR cycle threshold values in cases of COVID-19, England, January to May 2020. Eurosurveillance 25(32), 2001483. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560 -7917.ES.2020.25.32.2001483
UNICEF (2021). Information on the COVID-19 Vaccine, frequently asked questions, Ghana. Assessed on 10th August, 2021 from https://www.unicef.org/ghana/information-covid-19-vaccine
Wang Z., Yang B., Li Q., Wen L. and Zhang R. (2020) Clinical features of 69 cases with coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. Clinical infectious diseases 71(15), 769-777.
WHO (2003). Cumulative number of reported probable cases of SARS . (2003). Accessed: March 15, 2020: https://www.who.int/csr/sars/country/2003_07_11/en/
WHO (2020a). World Health Organization. Report on the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Available online at: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/whochina-joint-mission-on-COVID-19-finalreport.pdf (accessed March 23, 2020).
WHO (2020b). Getting your workplace ready for COVID-19. 3 March2020. World Health Organization. Assessed on 11th August, 2021 from https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/gettingworkplace-ready-for-covid-19.pdf
WHO (2020c). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Accessed: 11th August, 2021: https://www.who.int/emergencies/ diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019
WHO (2020d). How is COVID-19 transmitted? 14 July, 2020. Accessed on 11th August, 2021 from https://www.who.int/vietnam/news/detail/14-07-2020-q-a-how-is-covid-19-transmitted
WHO (2020e). COVID-19 Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) Global research and innovation forum. Assessed on 11th August, 2021 from https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/covid-19-public-health-emergency-of-international-concern-(pheic)-global-research-andinnovation-forum
WHO (2020f). WHO COVID-19: Case Definitions. Updated in Public health surveillance for COVID-19, published 16 December 2020. World Health Organization. WHO reference number: WHO/2019nCoV/Surveillance_Case_Definition/2020.2. Assessed on 16th August, 2021 from https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/1322790/retrieve
WHO (2020g). Episode #14 - COVID-19 – Tests. World Health Organization, Science Conversation. 27th November, 2020. Assessed on 16th August, 2020 from https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novelcoronavirus-2019/media-resources/sciencein-5/episode-14---covid-19---tests?g clid=CjwKCAjwmeiIBhA6EiwA -uaeFcShWyzLZDvX_7mDm3n3HNrBW1XitnRh1fe4S6f7zUn5rZ0KR_j22RoCpmUQAvD_BwE
WHO (2020h). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Vaccines. https://www.who.int/newsroom/q-a detail/coronavirus-disease-(covid-19) - vaccines topicsurvey=v8kj13)&gclid=Cj0KCQjwvO2IBhCzARIsALw3ASpj4reBKSuAlTnhI2xVyDwsMqzzPw1KRaRT1Eq9XByQzUSyVQ4HDQaAmKaEALw_wcB
Wu D., Koganti R., Lambe U.P., Yadavalli T., Nandi S.S. and Shukla D. (2020) Vaccines and therapies in development for SARSCoV-2 infections. Journal of clinical medicine 9 (6), 1885. Zhou X.-N. (2021) Infectious Diseases of Poverty: 10 years’ commitment to One Health, pp. 1-4: Springer
Copyright (c) 2022 Annals of Medical Laboratory Science
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
As AMLS is an international Open Access magazine, all the articles published under this journal will be accessible to all internet users throughout the world without any barrier of access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The copyright of a submitted article is only transferred to the publishers if and when the article is accepted for publication.