Dietary diversity and associated factors among pregnant women in urban Northern Ghana
Background: Though low dietary diversity during pregnancy results in low nutrient intake and adverse pregnancy outcomes, information on dietary diversity and its associated factors among pregnant women in Ghana particularly Northern Ghana is scanty. This study therefore assessed dietary diversity and associated socio-demographic characteristics among pregnant women in urban Northern Ghana.
Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study design was used, involving 273 pregnant women randomly selected from 8 health facilities in Tamale Metropolis and Sagnarigu Municipality. Socio-demographic characteristics of participants were documented using a structured questionnaire. Dietary diversity of participants was assessed using a 24 hour dietary recall method and the dietary diversity score was calculated based on ten food groups. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis were used to identify the factors associated with low dietary diversity.
Results: The mean age of the participants was 26.44 ±5.75 years with minimum and maximum ages of 16 and 44 years respectively. About 48% of the women had low dietary diversity. The mean dietary diversity score was 4.87 ± 2.04. Having no education at all [Odds Ratio (OR) = 5.5; 95% CI (2.09 –14.31); p = 0.001] and having only primary education [OR = 3.8; 95% CI (1.21 –12.09); p < 0.022] were significantly associated with low dietary diversity.
Conclusion: The study revealed that the prevalence of low dietary diversity is high among pregnant women in urban Northern Ghana. Improving the educational level of women is recommended to improve their dietary diversity.
Annals of Medical Laboratory Science (2022) 2(2), 55 - 62
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